At that time, sanatoria were widely found throughout Europe and the United States. Such places helped the sick strengthen the body's defense mechanism and expedite the healing process by providing rest, good nutrition, and a healthy environment, and they also served to isolate the sick from the healthy population. Forlanini, an Italian physician found that lung collapse had a favorable impact on the outcome of the disease. Given this observation, surgical methods to reduce lung volume and artificial pneumothorax were then introduced, marking the beginning of active therapy for TB. In 1895, Wilhelm Konrad bon Rontgen discovered the radiation, which could be used to view the progress and severity of a patient's disease. A milestone development was the introduction of the BCG vaccine, which is still used widely today. Calmette, a French bacteriologist, and Guerin were able to lower the virulence of the bovine strain of TB which led to the creation of the vaccine. In 1943 Selman A. Waksman discovered Streptomycin purified from Streptomyces griseus that was first administered to a human on November 20, 1944 and demonstrated impressive results. Thereafter, more and more anti-TB drugs were developed. Combination of multiple drugs turned out to be an important strategy as resistant mutants quickly emerged against a single drug.
Despite all the drugs available today, TB is still a problem in developing nations. The highest incidences are in countries like Africa, Asia, and Latin America with low gross national products. The World Health Organization estimates that each year 3 million people die from TB, and eight million people are infected with the disease. The annual rate of increase in TB incidence is 3% globally, 7% in Eastern Europe, and over 10% in the African countries that are most affected by HIV/AIDS.